Pet Health

Georginas Associates  Links

Animal Rescue – Behavior – Stress – Injury

This is a wonderful help for  animals with behavior problems such as attacking, aggression, scratching, chewing on objects, peeing on floor, whining or whimpering. They become stressful because of injuries, or surgeries, will shake because of paranoia, pain nervousness or vomiting, erratic breathing, or fear.

CLICK ON THIS LINK TO PURCHASE 

For Feelings Of:
  • Agitation
  • Attacks or fights with other animals
  • Distress & stress
  • Disturbed dreaming
  • Disturbed near electrical and magnetic fields and nuclear plants
  • Doing things without apparent reason
  • Effects from shock of abuse & neglect
  • Effects of being hit, prodded or yelled at
  • Effects of pain, torture, animal experimentation
  • Fear of storms, loud noises, lightening or other natural events
  • Heaving, erratic breathing when distressed
  • Ingrained habits such as barking, scratching, chewing on objects,
  • peeing on floors, Injuries, operations or wounds
  • Introduction of new animals into home or territory
  • Moves or major changes
  • Shocks & traumas, including past traumas
  • Quivering, shaking or nervousness
  • Sensitivity to indoor and outdoor environments
  • Signs of paranoia or fright, fear from unknown causes
  • Whines, whimpers or cries for no apparent reason
  • Stressful home situations
  • Trips in car, trains, airplanes
  • Visits to the Vet
  • Vomiting, swallowing objects
  • When confined in cages for trips or transportation
Contents: Vibrational essences of Black Walnut (Juglans nigra), Butternut (Juglans cinerea), Canada Plum (Pinus nigra) and Manitoba Maple (Acer negundo), in a base of spring water with 8% alcohol added as a preservative. Alcohol concern; place essence drops in hot water, not boiling water, let cool and drink. This will evaporate the alcohol.
How to Use: Use 11 drops in water and food 2 times a day. You can also put essence directly into their mouth or on places of skin where it can be absorbed they can lick it. When there is an emergency, you can use it every 15 minutes as needed to help.

 

Tamara Fosty – Reiki for AnimalsTamara 7

For as long as I can remember I have loved animals like nothing else in the world. The connection I feel to them is something that makes my heart feel full and just their presence in a room can make all your worries disappear. I have personally experienced the healing powers of these beautiful beings and all the lessons and wisdom they have to share.

I have been inspired and connected to Reiki through my very precious 17 year old cat, Thomas who has since crossed over. Our journey together inspired me to start my own practice and share this gift with others and their pets.  My mission is to open up and create a healing space, assisted by Reiki so that your pet has the opportunity to do just what it needs in order to heal from the inside out.  I believe that we all hold the key to unlock our bodies own true healing capabilities so that we may be guided to live life to its fullest on a physical, emotional and spiritual level.

I invite you to start your healing journey with me. I am a certified Reiki Master Level practitioner, trained in Crystal Healing, animal communication and Pet Reiki.

If you do not live in Vancouver, BC where I am located, I offer distant healing Reiki sessions that are equally effective as in-person sessions. 

The use of Reiki can assist your pet and their body to repair, strengthen and recover from illness and stress.

I look forward to working with you and your pet!

Tamar Fosty

www.tamarafosty.com

 *****************************************************************************************

 Dog Foods

Many dogs are having allergy issues now and it is often related to cereals, and certain grains.  Most do better with a sweet potato base – no corn no wheat and most prefer no regular potatoes.

Those who are most sensitive often do best with preferably wild or free range meats, such as bison, vension, rabbit or fish for the protein.

Raw Meat such as chicken (hopefully free range) is often fed alone away from other foods just make sure that you rinse it in a baggie with raw garlic and ginger to kill any bacteria.

For dry dog foods

The foods which came up as good ones to try for allergies were

http://www.orijen.ca/products/dog-food/dry-dog-food/six-fish-dog/

http://www.orijen.ca/products/dog-food/dry-dog-food/regional-red-dry/

http://www.evopet.com/products/1561

these are  mostly fish and very little potato..(7th ingredient)

http://www.acana.com/products/regionals/pacifica/

http://www.dogfoodadvisor.com/dog-food-reviews/

http://www.acana.com/products/regionals/ranchlands/

http://www.acana.com/products/regionals/grasslands/

http://www.bluebuffalo.com/dog-food/wilderness-salmon

http://www.bluebuffalo.com/dog-food/wilderness-duck

http://www.bluebuffalo.com/dog-food/wilderness-rocky-mountain-recipes-bison/

Natural Balance Dog Food

Our Alpha® formulas have a unique combination of multiple protein sources combined with garbanzo beans for a balanced diet. In addition to garbanzo beans, we’ve added blueberries, zucchini and apples. This line is great for healthy digestion with prebiotics that feed the beneficial bacteria that reside in a healthy digestive tract to maintain optimal digestive health. Alpha® is a completely grain-free formula that uses grain-free carbohydrate sources like sweet potatoes to provide the energy your dog needs to thrive in his natural form.

Alpha® Chicken, Turkey Meal & Duck Dry Dog Formula

Alpha® Lamb, Chicken Meal & Rabbit Dry Dog Formula

Alpha® Trout, Salmon Meal & Whitefish Dry Dog Formula

Natural Balance® L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets® Canned Formulas are designed with a limited number of protein and carbohydrate sources in each product. All of our special formulas are complete and balanced options for all breeds and life stages.

Some of our limited ingredient canned dog food varieties offer grain-free nutrition your dog is sure to love. Plus, our scientifically formulated blend will give your dog a healthy skin and coat.

L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets® Chicken & Sweet Potato Canned Dog Formula

L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets® Duck & Potato Canned Dog Formula

L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets® Lamb & Brown Rice Canned Dog Formula

L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets® Rabbit & Brown Rice Canned Dog Formula

L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets® Sweet Potato & Fish Canned Dog Formula

L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets® Venison & Sweet Potato Canned Dog Formula

L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets® Wild Boar & Brown Rice Canned Dog Formula

or these

http://www.orijen.ca/products/dog-food/dry-dog-food/six-fish-dog/

http://www.orijen.ca/products/dog-food/dry-dog-food/regional-red-dry/

http://www.evopet.com/products/1561

these are  mostly fish and very little potato..(7th ingredient)

http://www.acana.com/products/regionals/pacifica/

http://www.acana.com/products/regionals/ranchlands/

http://www.acana.com/products/regionals/grasslands/

http://www.bluebuffalo.com/dog-food/wilderness-salmon

http://www.bluebuffalo.com/dog-food/wilderness-duck

http://www.bluebuffalo.com/dog-food/wilderness-rocky-mountain-recipes-bison/

For most dogs the meat scraps from your plates are fine… and veggies too..

but no human sweets or starches :) )

******************************************************************************************

Cat Foods

there are many good cat foods and for cats especially, Raw or canned is better than dry food. Here is some general information.

ORIJEN WHOLE PREY™ INCORPORATES FRESH MEATS, ORGANS AND CARTILAGE IN RATIOS THAT MIRROR THE NATURAL DIET, REDUCING THE NEED FOR SYNTHETIC INGREDIENTS AND NOURISHING CATS AND KITTENS AS NATURE INTENDED.

Biologically appropriate™ cat food
made with fresh wild caught Canadian fish

 


INSPIRED BY THE RICH DIVERSITY OF FISH INDIGENOUS TO CANADA’S PRISTINE WATERS, ORIJEN 6 FISH IS PACKED WITH SALTWATER AND FRESHWATER FISH, CAUGHT-WILD AND THEN WHISKED TO OUR KITCHENS AS FRESH AND COLD AS THE WATERS THEY CAME FROM.
Surrounded by Atlantic, pacific and arctic oceans, and blessed with vast unpolluted rivers and lakes, Canada boasts a marine harvest perfectly suited ORIJEN’s philosophy of Biologically AppropriateTMcat foods from fresh regional ingredients.
Loaded with protein-packed fish (80%) to support lean muscle mass, ORIJEN’s low-carbohydrate, low-glycemic formula supports healthy blood sugar levels for peak health and optimum body weight in cats of all breeds and life-stages.
Prepared from Canada’s freshest fish, fruits and berries, in our very own kitchens, award-winning ORIJEN keeps your cat or kitten happy, healthy and strong.

THERE ARE THREE SOURCES OF CALORIES AVAILABLE TO YOUR CAT: PROTEIN, FAT AND CARBOHYDRATES. WHILE PROTEIN AND FAT ARE ESSENTIAL FOR YOUR CAT; CARBOHYDRATES ARE NOT.

In fact, cats do not require any carbohydrate in their diet. Fast carbohydrates from rice, corn, potato or tapioca elevate blood sugar and are quickly stored in the body as fat, and are a leading dietary cause of overweight cats.

By providing more calories from protein and fat, and fewer from carbohydrates, ORIJEN provides a calorie distribution that mirrors your cat or kitten’s natural diet — reducing the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.

CALORIE CONTENT AND DISTRIBUTION
Metabolizable energy for ORIJEN 6 FISH for CATS is 4060 kcal/kg (487 kcal per 250ml cup) (120g). Calories are distributed to support peak physical conditioning with 41% from protein, 17% from fruits and vegetables and 42% from fat.

HIGH-PROTEIN, LOW-CARBOHYDRATE AND LOADED WITH FRESH REGIONAL FISH, ORIJEN 6 FISH FOR CATS MIRRORS THE FOODS MOTHER NATURE INTENDED CATS OF ALL BREEDS AND LIFESTYLES TO EAT.

Just as important is the great ORIJEN taste that your cat won’t soon forget. After all, it’s important that your cat enjoys her meals too!

ORIJEN benefits cats of every breed and size. Just like people, your cat is unique and her feeding requirements will vary with her breed, environment, age and activity. That’s why we suggest monitoring her weight and adjusting her rations as needed.

We recommend feeding twice daily and remember to always keep fresh, clean water available to your cat or kitten.

In this video, Dr. Karen Becker visits the Bad Dog Frida pet boutique in Madison, Wisconsin and gives a guided tour of several high quality commercially available pet foods.

Dr. Becker’s Comments:

Ever since I did 13 Pet Foods – Ranked From Great to Disastrous, many of you have been asking me to compile a detailed list of what I consider to be high quality commercially available pet foods. You’ve asked, ‘What’s the best food I can buy for my pet?’

My answer is there’s really not one best food. The more variety you feed your dog or cat, and the more species-appropriate the food is, the better you are nourishing your pet for a lifetime.

To give you an idea of the different types of higher quality pet foods available on the market today, I visited a Madison, Wisconsin upscale pet boutique called Bad Dog Frida. The store owners graciously opened their doors to me and allowed me to take viewers on a tour of the store to learn how to make good choices when buying pet food.

First Stop: The Freezer Section to Check Out Raw Diets

The best commercial food you can feed to your dog or cat will come from the freezer section of smaller or specialty pet stores and boutiques.

One of the reasons you won’t find freezers in most big box pet supply stores is because there’s considerable education involved in selling commercial raw food diets to the public. Some large chains like Petco and PetSmart may carry frozen or refrigerated foods, but they don’t have a staff knowledgeable in helping pet owners understand the ins and outs of feeding raw.

You’ll not only have more luck finding raw diets at pet boutiques, but the staff in smaller specialty stores will in most cases have the experience necessary to help you make good decisions on what food would be best for your pet.

When it comes to commercially prepared frozen raw food, you’ll find a wide variety of brands, flavors and protein sources. What type of raw food you decide to feed your dog or cat will depend on what he will eat.

For example, if you plan to transition your kitty from dry food to a raw diet, you’d first move her to canned food, and then introduce a chicken-based raw food that is somewhat similar in flavor to her chicken-based dry food.

When you look at the back of a bag of frozen raw pet food, one of the first things you want to see is that it is AAFCO compliant. This means it has been approved by the American Association of Feed Control Officials as nutritionally-balanced nourishment for all life stages (canine or feline).

I also recommend you feed only raw foods that are products of the U.S.A.

Another thing to check is the guaranteed analysis, specifically for fat content. Raw diets can be very low in fat, or very high in fat. If you have, for example, an otherwise healthy but underweight Boxer or Pointer, a higher fat raw food is the way to go.

But if your pet is obese or suffering from a medical condition like pancreatitis, you would want to select a raw diet low in fat content.

Next Best Option: Excellent Quality Canned Food

If for some reason you can’t or are unwilling to feed a biologically-appropriate raw diet, the next best option is canned food.

Raw food contains about 70 percent water, and the meat is in its natural state. Canned foods contain between 70 and 80 percent water, and the meats, while processed (cooked), are still a healthier choice than dry food.

When you look at the label on a canned pet food, you want to see protein as the first ingredient. If there are grains in the formula, they should be whole grains.

I don’t advocate feeding carbohydrates to dogs and cats, especially if they’re healthy. Now, if your cat has kidney problems or your dog is suffering from liver failure, you need to supply a small amount of grains in the diet to offset protein. Pets with kidney and liver failure can’t process canned protein efficiently.

But today I’m discussing healthy pets. They require a good amount of protein in the diet, and few if any carbs.

So you want the canned food label to show meat as the first two ingredients, followed by healthy sources of veggies and fruits. Remember, order of ingredients is important.

The label on the can of food I’m holding (in the video) lists ingredients as follows:

· Boneless, skinless, white meat chicken

· Water sufficient for processing (this will always be at the top of the list for canned foods)

· Salmon

· Pumpkin

· Tomato

· Pea

· Sweet potato

· Sunflower seed oil

The whole vegetables mixed with meats in this formula make it biologically appropriate. This is a much, much better choice than a food containing split proteins, unidentified proteins, split fraction grains, or pieces and parts of vegetables and fruit. Whole foods are what you want to see on a label of canned food.

This canned food also reads, ‘Grain Free Greatness. Produced with the same ingredients used in products for humans.’

What this means is not only is the formula grain-free, but while the food itself is not approved for human consumption, the ingredients are. That’s what you want to see on a canned pet food label.

Another Good Option: Dehydrated Raw Food

If you can’t or don’t want to feed whole raw or canned food, a good middle-of-the-road choice is dehydrated raw food. Dehydrated means it’s dry, but only until you add warm water. Then it becomes a biologically appropriate food with about 70 percent water (or more, if you want to add more).

Dehydrated raw means the food hasn’t been processed at high temperatures and in many cases the nutrient value has been retained. Dehydrated raw isn’t true raw. Truly raw food will decompose if you leave it out on a counter at room temperature. Dehydrated raw won’t.

Dehydrated raw is a good go-between diet for pets that are being transitioned from dry food to raw, or for pet owners who don’t want to feed true raw or canned diets.

I also like this type of food for its digestibility and also for the different protein sources available, for example, turkey, beef, chicken and fish. When you add water to the powder, it turns into the consistency of gruel. It’s a great choice for animals with gastrointestinal sensitivities or that are recovering from GI surgery.

I recommend it for pet owners who want to feed a grain free diet but aren’t comfortable with raw. I also recommend it as a transitional food for pets that are coming off a bland diet for a GI problem or pancreatitis, for example.

As regular readers of my newsletter know, I’m a firm believer in feeding a wide variety of foods to pets. I love the idea of mixing things up by serving a combination of different varieties of raw, canned and dehydrated raw.

Make sure the brand you select is AAFCO approved for all life stages to insure it’s a nutritionally complete diet for your dog or cat.

Remember to check the ingredient label on every bag, box or can of food you feed your dog or cat. The box of dehydrated raw I’m holding (in the video) has the following ingredients, in the following order:

· Dehydrated turkey

· Organic flaxseed

· Potatoes

· Celery

· Spinach

· Carrots

· Organic coconut

· Apples

· Organic kelp

· Eggs

· Bananas

All the above are excellent raw foods in their natural form. You can’t get much better quality than this when it comes to prepared food ingredients. This brand is also AAFCO approved, which means it’s safe and nutritionally balanced for all life stages. It’s also made in the U.S.

Last on the List: Dry Food

So to review what we’ve covered so far, a raw diet is the most biologically and species-appropriate option for your pet.

Next is a high quality canned food and/or dehydrated raw, both of which should be moisture rich and grain free.

Down the list from those is dry food.

In Bad Dog Frida and other specialty pet food stores with a passion for pet nutrition, the focus is on species-appropriate foods, including dry foods. But dry food is lowest on my list because it lacks moisture content.

Dry pet foods, on average, contain about 12 percent moisture. That’s down from the 70 to 80 percent contained in raw, canned and dehydrated raw with water added. Cats and dogs fed a diet of dry food all their lives often experience significant organ stress, specifically the kidneys.

Many pet owners mistakenly believe dry food cleans their dog’s or cat’s teeth. That’s a myth. Dry, crunchy kibble doesn’t clean your pet’s teeth any better than granola or crackers clean yours.

The only way your pet’s teeth will get clean is if there is shearing action from bone-dense food, or if he’s grinding on raw bones, or when you brush his teeth. Dry foods have no shearing or grinding action, and most of them are carbohydrate based. They contain grains your pet doesn’t need nutritionally, and these grains also promote plaque and tartar.

At Bad Dog Frida, there are varieties of foods that contain very few carbs. And they have entirely grain free varieties as well.

Keep in mind all dry, crunchy, kibble-based pet food formulas contain some form of starch – it could be tapioca, it could be potato flour, it might be pea flour. But there has to be some type of starch or gluten to make the food sticky enough to form the pieces of kibble. So even if a dry food is grain free, don’t be tricked into thinking it’s carbohydrate free.

The label of this particular bag of dry food (being held in the video) lists the following ingredients, in this order:

· Salmon meal (Meat ‘meal’ is meat that has had the moisture removed. Salmon meal is salmon that has been dehydrated and ground up.)

· Herring meal

· Russet potato

· Deboned whitefish

· Sweet potato

· Peas

· Salmon oil

The first six ingredients are fish and potatoes – whole foods. All the fish is whole, and the sweet potato and peas are also in whole form. This is as healthy a dry food as you’ll find.

******************************************************************************************

Tree Essences for Pets

Animal Rescue: Behavior or Stress

This essence may be used for animals that have behavior problems such as attacking, scratching, chewing on objects, or shaking because of pain from trauma or injury.

 For Feelings Of:
  • Agitation
  • Attacks or fights with other animals
  • Distress & stress
  • Disturbed dreaming
  • Disturbed near electrical and magnetic fields and nuclear plants
  • Doing things without apparent reason
  • Effects from shock of abuse & neglect
  • Effects of being hit, prodded or yelled at
  • Effects of pain, torture, animal experimentation
  • Fear of storms, loud noises, lightening or other natural events
  • Heaving, erratic breathing when distressed
  • Ingrained habits such as barking, scratching, chewing on objects,
  • peeing on floors, Injuries, operations or wounds
  • Introduction of new animals into home or territory
  • Moves or major changes
  • Shocks & traumas, including past traumas
  • Quivering, shaking or nervousness
  • Sensitivity to indoor and outdoor environments
  • Signs of paranoia or fright, fear from unknown causes
  • Whines, whimpers or cries for no apparent reason
  • Stressful home situations
  • Trips in car, trains, airplanes
  • Visits to the Vet
  • Vomiting, swallowing objects
  • When confined in cages for trips or transportation

 

Animal Restore: Neglect or Abuse

This essence may be used for animals that have been assaulted or tortured and lost their spirit or will to live.


Consider which of these may reflect your animal.

For Feelings Of:
  • After illnesses
  • Assaults on spirit
  • Being hit, yelled at
  • Debilitating effect of traumas
  • Depression
  • Effects of past abuse on animal’s spirit
  • Effects of sadistic & cruel behavior
  • Effects on spirit of pain, torture, animal experimentation
  • Hiding, refusing to eat
  • Inertia, tiredness
  • Lack of vitality
  • Seams O.K. one minute and aggressive the next minute.
  • Maltreatment
  • Negativity & dislike
  • Constant biting of self or other dogs or human
  • Neglect
  • Sadness, fear
  • Sensitivity to indoor and outdoor environments
  • Whimpering, cowering

Animal Whisper

Helpful for: Animals in decline, animal palliative care, horse whisperer, animal hurt, animal companions, companion animal health, sad animals, humane society animals, aging animals, aging dog, aging cat, aging horse, baby horses, animal loss, animal grief, animal dying, dog dying, cat dyng, horse dying, senior animals, older animals, soothing animals, flower remedy, flower remedies, flower essence, flower essences, bach essence, bach flower essence, bach flower essences, tree essence, tree essences, wild crafted, natural essence, intuitive healing, alternative healing, emotional healing, holistic healing, vibrational healing, emotional well being.

Signs:

Abandonment & separation

Chronic, long term debilitation

Discomfort from chronic pain

Fragile & in decline

Grace & quietude during last days of life

{Humans will benefit using this essence for loss of companions}

Loss of life energy

Loss of animal partners

Loss of capability or desire to interact or socialize

Loss of capability to move

Loss of desire for food or sustenance

Loss of human companions

Loss of one of the senses

Need for palliative care

Neglect

New born animals

Old age & body decline

Separation from mother

Weakness from long term illness

 

If you are interested in ordering the essences, you can do so by Clicking here to get to their website.

*******************************************************************************************

Here is an article on mixing raw with kibble

To Mix or Not to Mix? That is the Question…
By Laura Duclos, PhD
There are various opinions being expressed on the internet and
among professionals regarding the practice of mixing raw with kibble
.
Some advocate mixing while many others contend raw should be fed separately
. While there is little scientific evidence dealing directly with this topic,
there is a lot of information and published papers discussing animal digestion and physiology.
We know a lot about what influences gastric emptying and residence time.

The primary reason many don’t feel it is okay to mix raw with
kibble has to do with digestion rates, arguing that kibble is digested
more slowly and would prevent raw from emptying into the intestinal tract.
One could argue that there are many pet parents that mix kibble and canned
nd many pet food companies that have been selling “mixers” or “toppers” for years
, so the different digestive rates must not be the main reason for suggesting owners do not mix.

The main reason seems to be the fear that raw food,if not allowed to
leave the stomach quickly, will somehow “rot” inside the stomach or that nutrients in the raw
will not be absorbed properly.

If the raw lingers in the stomach, can the bacteria in raw meat actually proliferate and
cause disease? Can slowed gastric emptying actually impair nutrient uptake?

At present, there is no scientific evidence that supports or refutes this theory.

What we do know is that the canine and feline digestive tract is designed to handle raw meat, e
ven fermented or partially spoiled meat. More importantly, canines are known scavengers
and will eat a variety of foods, not just raw.

The following sections provide more detail about digestion, gastric emptying, and nutrient
absorption relative to canines and felines.

The Basic Process of Digestion

The digestive tract begins in the mouth; chewing reduces food particle size and mixes
the food with salivary enzymes that begin to breakdown carbohydrates.
Once swallowed, the chewed food enters the stomach where it mixes with strong acids, mucus, and
proteases (enzymes that break down proteins).

The stomach mixes and churns the food, reducing it to a slurry. If the slurry
is the right acidity, viscosity, and particle size, the pyloric sphincter (a muscular ring
-like valve) opens and the food enters the small intestine where fats and carbohydrates
are broken down. The small intestine is the site of more enzymatic digestion and finally,
nutrient absorption.

The digestive process is a catabolic event meaning that fat, carbohydrates, and proteins
are broken down into smaller constituents which are absorbed and used by the body to
provide energy or build new tissues in a process called anabolism.

The process may appear simple, but digestion is really a complex interaction of mechanical
and chemical processes under hormonal control. In addition to physiological controls,
the type of food ingested and its chemical composition influence digestion.

Factors That Affect Gastric Emptying In general, moisture content and particle size
will drive gastric emptying; small particles will exit the stomach faster than solids or
large particles because liquids and small particles are more quickly turned to a slurry.

However, that is where generalities stop.
We cannot definitely say canned food exits the stomach faster than kibble since food composition
and hormonal controls play a large role in how quickly the stomach can make the slurry.

The amount of fiber, fat and protein will either increase or decrease gastric emptying
independently of the food’s moisture content.

High fat diets typically neutralize stomach acids and delay emptying.

High soluble fiber diets will act like a sponge, reducing the amount of liquid and increasing
the length of time food remains in the stomach.

Protein digestion begins in the stomach, so diets high in protein will tend to linger
in the stomach giving the proteases more time to breakdown the proteins.

Lastly, meal size and emotional status of the animal can influence gastric emptying. The stomach need
s to properly mix the food before it can empty;large meals fill-up the stomach and impede
thorough mixing. Mixing of the stomach contents along with gastric secretions such as acids
, mucus, and enzymes,is controlled by a complex series of nerve impulses and hormone releases.
Animals that are stressed, anxious, or have an endocrine disorder may have delayed or even increased
gastric emptying.

Nutrient Absorption and Utilization

The goal of digestion is to release nutrients locked in food. Absorption
is the process of the gathering those nutrients, shuttling them from the GI tract into the body
where they are used for energy and tissue growth. The stomach and
small intestine are the major sites of digestion.

The stomach does not absorb nutrients; it
releases them from the food matrix. The longer food spends in the stomach, the greater the
amount of breakdown. The entire small intestine is the site of nutrient absorption, not the stomach.

Nutrients released from the food are absorbed though the intestinal wall into the bloodstream.
The speed of food flowing though the intestine will impact the amount of nutrients that can be absorbed.
Fast moving nutrients may not be completely utilized.

Summary
Mixing raw with kibble or canned with kibble are common feeding practices that have been practiced for
years without negative effects.

Mixing raw with kibble does not lead to an increased risk of bacterial disease nor does it impair
nutrient utilization.

While mixing may influence the length of time food remains in the stomach, rates of gastric emptying
cannot be broadly applied to categories of food such as “wet” or “dry.

” Emptying depends on many factors, not just the amount of moisture in the food such that if
two foods are mixed, the resulting emptying rate is not simply the result of adding the two rates together.

Food interacts with other physiological processes.

Dogs and cats thrive on a diet of raw meat. Many pet parents are beginning to understand the
transformational benefits and have begun offering their pets raw food.

But raw has inherent challenges, so for some pet parents, feeding exclusively raw may not be
financially feasible or fit into their lifestyle.

We believe that feeding any amount of raw, even as a topper on kibble is better than
not feeding raw at all.

But it is critical that the raw food is Complete and Balanced.

References

Bourreau, J., D. Hernot, et al. (2004). “Gastric emptying rate is inversely related to body weight in dog breeds of different
sizes.”
Journal of Nutrition
134
:
2039S
-
2041S.

Case, L., D. Carey, et al. (2000
).
Canine and Feline Nutrition: a resource for companion animal professionals
. St. Louis, MO, Mosby, Inc.

Ehrlein, H.
-
J. and J. Prove (1982). “Effect of viscosity of test meals on gastric emptying.”
The Physiological Society
.

Hand, M. S., C. D. Thatcher, e
t al., Eds. (2000).
Small Animal Clinical Nutrition
. Topeka, KS, Mark Morris Institute.

Itoh, T., T. Higuchi, et al. (1986). “Effect of particle size and food on gastric residence time of non
-
disintegrating
solids in beagle dogs.”
Journal of
Pharmaceutical
s
and Pharmacology
38
(11): 801
-
806.

Keinke, O., M. Schemann, et al. (1984). “Mechanical factors regulating gastric emptying of viscous nutrient meals in dogs.”
Quarterly Journal of
Experimental Physiology
69
: 781
-
795.

Miyabayashi, T. and J. Morgan (1984).
“Gastric emptying in the normal dog.”
Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound
25
(4): 187
-
191.

******************************************************************************************

Essential Fatty Acids – Omega 3

What are fatty acids?

Many dogs do well with supplemental Essential Fatty acids.

You can ask your veterinarian if they feel this might be helpful and you can usually purchase a bottle at your veterinarian clinic or health food store. If you would like to review further information about how EFA’s can be helpful with your pets health please go to the following website http://www.thepetcenter.com/gen/fa.html

Which fatty acids do pets need?
Animals can produce some of the fatty acids they need, but not all of them. Those fatty acids which they can not produce themselves, but must be obtained through their diet, are called ‘essential’ fatty acids. Interestingly, what is ‘essential’ for one species of animal is not necessarily essential for another. For example, the fatty acid, arachidonic acid is essential for cats but not for dogs.
In some disease conditions, certain enzymes which convert one fatty acid to another may be deficient, or the animal may not be able to adequately absorb fatty acids from the intestine. In animals with these conditions, some of the ‘nonessential’ fatty acids actually become ‘essential,’ that is, required in the diet, and in higher amounts. Deficiencies of fatty acids may also occur with the use of fat-restricted diets in overweight dogs.
Fatty acids in foods are subject to degradation. Overcooking can destroy fatty acids. Improper storage or a suboptimal amount of antioxidants in dry food may result in rancidity and a subsequent deficiency in fatty acids.

Omega-3 fatty acids
Omega-3 fatty acids include:

•Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
•Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
•Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

ALA can be converted into EPA, however, this conversion does not occur in the skin. EPA is the workhorse of the omega-3 fatty acids and is incorporated into the cell membrane.

Omega-6 fatty acids
Omega-6 fatty acids include:

•Linoleic acid (LA)
•Gamma linolenic acid (GLA)
•Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA)
•Arachidonic acid (AA)

LA can be converted into GLA, but not in the skin. However, DGLA can be made from GLA in the skin.
LA is important because it optimizes water permeability in the skin. AA, on the other hand, in increased amounts, is the troublemaker among the fatty acids.

Ratios of fatty acids
Research is being performed to determine the optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids that should be consumed. Previously, it was thought that the ratio should be approximately 15:1. Current recommendations are for ratios of 10:1 to 5:1.

Most pet foods contain far more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3′s. Some pet food companies have added omega-3 fatty acids to their foods to lower the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids. It is important to realize that although the ratios may be a guideline,3′s is what is most important.

Sources of fatty acids

Fat may contain fatty acids, but in extremely varying quantities. For example, beef fat will have a very low percentage of fatty acids, whereas, sunflower oil and fish oil will have much larger percentages.

Fatty acids are found in different quantities in many plants and cold water fish. Marine oils are good sources of EPA and DHA. The other fatty acids are found in higher quantities in certain plants and grains. Sunflower oil and safflower oil are especially high in LA.

As mentioned previously, most pet foods contain far more omega-6 than omega-3 fatty acids. It has been found that cattle and poultry fed increased omega-3 fatty acids will produce meat and eggs higher in omega-3 fatty acids. In the future, the use of these products in pet food may help to optimize the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in the diet.

How fatty acids function in inflammation  
EPA, DHA, and DGLA decrease the harmful effects of AA.

Both AA and EPA can be incorporated into cell membranes. When a cell is damaged, AA is released from the cell membrane and is metabolized by enzymes into substances which increase inflammation and pruritus (itching). EPA is also released when a cell is damaged. It competes with AA for the same metabolic enzymes. EPA results in the production of less inflammatory substances. DHA also results in the production of less inflammatory substances. So DHA and EPA decrease the harmful effects of AA.
DGLA also competes with AA for enzymes. In addition, DGLA causes the release of prostaglandin E1 (PGE), a substance which inhibits the release of AA from the cell membrane.

Indications for the use of supplemental fatty acids

From that complicated description, we hope you can see that by supplementing with EPA, DHA, and GLA (which the body can easily convert to DGLA) we may be able to lessen the effects of inflammation. Fatty acids affect a number of body systems and conditions, as described below.

Allergies and Autoimmune Conditions: Allergies and autoimmune conditions occur because the immune system over-reacts. Certain fatty acids can lessen the harmful effects these diseases can have on the body.

Arthritis: Research is showing that omega-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, may be helpful in reducing the inflammation associated with arthritis.

Other Inflammatory Diseases: Other diseases which are accompanied by inflammation such as ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis may respond to the anti-inflammatory effects of certain fatty acids.

Dull and Dry Hair Coats: Haircoats which are dull, brittle, and dry often respond to supplementation with essential fatty acids, especially LA. It has also been found that in some cases of seborrhea, there is a deficiency of LA in the skin. In these cases, supplements high in LA are useful. The addition of EPA and GLA is also beneficial in that it would help negate the release of AA from cells damaged because of this skin condition.

Yeast Infections: Fatty acids have been shown to slow down the growth of Malassezia pachydermatis, a common yeast infection in dogs and cats, in the laboratory. It is thought, these fatty acids may play a beneficial role in the treatment of this yeast infection on the skin and ears in dogs and cats.

Preventing Atopy: Some researchers have suggested that fatty acid supplements may be useful to prevent atopy (allergies to inhaled substances such as pollens and molds) from developing in young animals. The theory is that pregnant atopic mothers have a decreased amount of PGE in their systems. PGE is necessary for the development of a healthy immune system in neonates. If the mothers are deficient in PGE, their offspring may be more likely to develop abnormal immune systems which would make them more prone to atopy themselves. Since GLA, when converted to DGLA, causes the release of PGE, giving GLA to a pregnant female in the last month of pregnancy and during lactation may increase PGE and decrease the incidence of the offspring developing atopy.

Eyes: In addition to their effects on the developing immune system, omega-3 fatty acids are also essential for the proper development of the retina and visual cortex.

Heart Problems: Evidence suggests, omega-3 fatty acids may prevent certain cardiac problems as well. Ventricular arrhythmias in dogs have been prevented and high blood pressure has been reduced in dogs supplemented with fatty acids. Animals prone to thromboembolisms may be helped by the anti-clotting effect fatty acids have on platelets.

Cancers: Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to slow the development and metastasis of certain cancers. Omega-6 fatty acids, on the other hand, have been shown to stimulate tumor development.

Plasma Triglycerides and Cholesterol: Fish oils have been shown to decrease levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood. Animals receiving retinoid therapy (synthetic vitamin A derivatives) for various skin problems may develop hyperlipidemia. Fish oils may benefit these patients.

It should be obvious that fatty acids are necessary for the normal function of many systems of the body. It is also obvious that not all fatty acids are equal. Because the different fatty acids have different effects, the choice of a fatty acid supplement needs to be based on the specific condition we are trying to manage.

Fatty acids as part of a management plan

In some animals, fatty acids alone can decrease pruritus or inflammation to an acceptable level. More often, fatty acids are used in conjunction with other therapies. Fatty acids have a synergistic effect with both antihistamines and glucocorticoids. By using fatty acid supplements, we can often decrease the dose of glucocorticoids by 50% or even eliminate them in animals with allergic pruritus.

Many veterinary dermatologists recommend that fatty acids be used for 9-12 weeks before concluding they are not helping the condition.

Since fatty acids need to be incorporated into cell membranes, they usually do not have an immediate effect. Often a pet must be on a fatty acid supplement for a month before any positive results can be seen. Many veterinary dermatologists recommend that fatty acids be used for 9-12 weeks before considering discontinuation because of lack of positive results. Most experts advise treating with fatty acid supplements twice daily. Some research has shown that 2-10 times the recommended dose may be necessary to control pruritus in dogs.

Dermatologic conditions in cats such as miliary dermatitis and eosinophilic granuloma respond well to fatty acid supplementation, having success rates of 40% and 66.7% respectively. The success rate in dogs with allergic pruritus appears to be less, most studies reporting around 20%.

Risks and side effects of fatty acid supplementation

There are few side effects of fatty acid supplementation. At high doses, the most serious, but rare complication, is pancreatitis. This is an inflammation of the pancreas that can cause pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration.

Since fatty acids are polyunsaturated fats, they do add calories. If a pet is on large doses of fatty acids, a pet food lower in calories, and fewer treats, may need to be given to prevent weight gain. Some pets may develop diarrhea from fatty acid supplements. Often, starting supplementation at a low dose and gradually working up to the therapeutic dose can help alleviate this problem. It has also been suggested that diets low in fat may increase the effectiveness of fatty acid supplements.

Because fatty acid supplements contain large amounts of fish oils, some pets develop a ‘fishy’ breath.
The long-term or high-dose effects of fatty acid supplements have not been determined.

Conclusion

Fatty acids have been shown to be important in the health of skin, coat, joints, and other body systems. The various fatty acids have different actions and the choice of supplement needs to be based on the effect desired. For dry skin and dull hair coats, supplements high in LA are recommended. For allergies and inflammations, supplements high in EPA, DHA, and GLA are most effective. In the treatment of atopy and other allergies, fatty acid supplements have been shown to be synergistic with antihistamines and glucocorticoids, enabling the dose of glucocorticoids to be decreased. Therapeutic trials with fatty acid supplements should last 9-12 weeks.

To make the best use of fatty acid supplements, additional research needs to be performed to determine the optimal dosage, ratios, dietary modifications, concurrent therapies, and long-term effects.

Nutrition and Aggression

Here is an article about nutrition in relationship to aggression, I think even though he doesn’t really act fearful.. there is a defensiveness that stems from fear with him. http://www.animalmedcenter.com/news-and-press/article/the-influence-of-nutrition-on-aggression